Cnuasacht trágha/Notes

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Cnuasacht trágha by Michael Sheehan
[ 52 ]


(Abbreviations: S. Ċ. na nD., Sean-Ċaint na nDéise; C. C. C., Cnó Coilleaḋ Craoḃaiġe; De H., Dr. Henebry.)


Tráiġteóir a beach-comber. One who collects drift and wreckage on the sea-shore.

1. “On the top of the cliff.”

2. “A south-east wind was blowing straight in towards the cliff;” cf., atá sé in a coṁnuiḋe i mbeul an dorais agam, he lives opposite my door. The word séideaḋ in the text could not be used but for the adverbial phrase which follows, viz., isteaċ i mbeul na f. . . . Incorrect, e.g., to say ḃí gaoṫ ṁór ag séideaḋ. We should say ḃí gaoṫ mór ann.

3. “According as he was walking, the light kept receding from him, at times he saw it and at times he did not.”

4. “He met with, or found, a path in the cliff.”

5. “Towards.”

6. “A great frieze coat on his shoulders and a rope of tow about his waist.” Aniar, from the back, coming around from behind.

7. “A cap with ear-flaps pressed tightly down, fastened under the chin.”

8. “A lantern throwing all the light out in front of him.” Observe the brevity of the description and the completeness of the picture. This is characteristically Irish.

9. [This, with some variants, is a corruption of dar an mbaiste.—De H.]

10. “On the strand.” We may say, ḃí sé ag an tráiġ or insan tráiġ, or ḃí sé amuiġ ar an dtráiġ ag bailiuġaḋ trioscair. We, also, say amuiġ insan sliaḃ. Insan pronounced sa, throughout.

11. The atá need not be translated. It is common in classical Irish and gives the answer a serious tone.

12. “Towards it.”

13. “You can.“
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14. “Dat. of guala, a shoulder. “We will go eastwards, off binn an Ċarnáin,“ i.e., keeping it to our right or left, as the case may be. Soir ó B. an Ċ., would mean “castwards, starting or reckoning from B. an Ċ.

14a. “A good distance east of us.”

15. “We will share and share alike.” Leaṫ i bpáirt leat, “I cry half,” as a child says when a companion finds anything.

16. Cloċ, translate “rock.” “What would we get among these rocks?” Carraig, a large rock or crag

17. “How do you know but that you might find your fortune?” Atá marḃaḋ na mílte, agus tógḃáil na mílte innsin, “the death and the resurrection of thousands are there,” said of a valley where herbs, wholesome and poisonous, were growing. Tógḃáil pronounced tógaint in Munster.

18. “Usually after a gale there is a lot of foam between the rocks.”

19. “A woman, stately and fair of feature;” breaġḋa is practically nothing more than an intensive prefix. Treun, brave, vigorous..

20. “This, i.e., the seal-skin jacket, was twisted about her head.”

21. “My heart sprang with terror, and I almost fell down in a faint, but still I said to myself, it were a great pity to leave her amongst the host of the sea.” The dead, buried on land, belong to the sluaġ na tíre, and the dead, swallowed up by the sea, to the sluaġ na fairrge. Agus adeir siad gur mó sluaġ na fairrge inoá sluaġ na tíre. Dóbair go, it was almost happening that.

22. D’iarraiḋ, trying. This should not be written a d’diarraiḋ even though so pronounced. The do is quite correct.

23. “To free her hand from between the stones.”

24. “To lift.” In Waterford this form is used with object expressed; árduġaḋ with object understood.

25. “A great towering wave.”

26. “Only that I managed to get a foot-hold for both feet between the rocks, and managed to seize a jut of rock at my side.” Lit., “I got to put my two feet.” Cuir do ċos i dtaca leis an gcloiċ sin, use that stone as a foot-hold.

27. “A few good-sized armfuls of grass.”

28. [This interjected explanation is characteristically Irish.—De H.]

29. “Prompt and bright.”

30. Tiuḃraimíd, fut. of tugaim. Commonly pronounced, and often written, less correctly, taḃairfimíd.

31. “I will leave no stain upon you,” said Brigid, and she washed her, and laid her out on the table.
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32. “That such a one had been found.”

33. D’fiarfaig. Dr. Henebry prefers this spelling to d’fiafraig.

34. “Since you were so kind as you have been, here, woman of the house, take the ring with the golden collet.” More correctly, ar a ḃfuil an ċ. óir. Some would write go ḃfuil an ċ. air. This go is quite incorrect, and should never be written. [The go is a mere corruption, and arose in this way: an fear ag a ḃfuil capall became an fear ga ḃfuil capall aige, and the ga was changed to go and used for all oblique relatives.—De H.] An ċaṫaoir óir, the bezel or collet of a ring; the part of the ring in which the stone is set. In silver rings the collet is sometimes of gold.

35. “You received a good recompense for your labour.”

35a. Cadé. Interrog. pro., masc. or fem. If the noun following were fem., we should still write caidé or cadé. The é is not the mas. pers. pro., as is plain from O. Irish. The belief that it is, has given rise to the corruption cad í, which appears to be used in parts of W. Munster. But, even there, cadé is frequently used before fem. nouns, a use which, in spite of much subtlety, has not been, and cannot be satisfactorily explained by those who regard the é as a pers. pro. Creud é and creud í are used by Keating, but creud is different from cad, and the pers. pros. é and í are used quite regularly by him.

35b. “He was, I should say, a military captain;” lit., “he was the thing—namely, as might be a military captain.”

36. “You see many marvels on this strand.”

37. “Some years ago at nightfall.”

38. “A great black, shapeless mass closing in, in towards the cliff.”

39. Árṫraċ í. The í is used because a ship is usually spoken of as fem. See note 1, p. 55.

40. Lit., full tide, but here, “water's edge.”

41. “The clatter, or noise, down the cliff.”

42. “In bonds or chains.” “Tale or tidings of them I have not obtained since then, far or near.”

43. Incorrectly written ní ḃfuair. The sound at the beginning is due to the vowel u, and is heard in the pros. uaim, uait, &c.

44. É do ḋul amaċ, ⁊rl. “He to go out and to bring it in.” As pointed out in C. C. C., p. 93, this is how all stage directions should be expressed. Tagann Seumas isteaċ, suiḋeann sé, and all similar verb forms, are incorrect because frequentative in meaning.

45. Wealth. [From iol, a multiplicative, and maiṫeás. — De H.]
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1. Bád is masculine, but the pronoun of reference is feminine, because bád is personified. Bád and cailín, in regard to adjectives, articles and pronouns, behave in exactly the same way. In C. C, C, p. 29, bád . . é seo occurs, but is due to careless reporting. See S. Ċ. na nD., p. 55. This irregularity in gender is probably due to genuine personification, and not to the influence of some word which is regarded as the chief or leading word of its class. Thus, it is probably incorrect to ascribe the use of feminines with bád and árṫraċ as due to the influence of long.

2. "A fine, sunny day."

3. "The skipper got sleepy." Do ṫuit mo ċodlaḋ orm or do ṫuiṫeas dom ċodlaḋ, I fell asleep.

4. "To the bottom of the sea."

5. "The son said to the men that, however (ill) he had fared in the past, he would lose his life now because of (the loss of) the pot."

6. "See ! Tie (lit. make) a rope around me fast and sure, and I will go down and fetch it."

7. "Do you want to drown yourself?"

8. "Hold hard on the rope, then."

9. "Down with you, in God's name."

10. "When he reached the bottom."

11. "He was astonished when he saw the house, with the door open, perfectly safe from any inrush of water, and with nothing around it but a fine bank of sand."

12. "The boy saluted him, and he saluted the boy." Note use of innso next line. For vividness it is used instead of innsin.

13. "A pipe-stem."

14. "I will not mind it."

15. "(The explanation of my coming here is) a pot which fell out of my grasp down from the boat a while ago." The sense would be spoiled if we wrote do ṫuit corcán, &c. See note 19, p. 57. Corcán is subject in position of emphasis, but has a further shade of meaning conveyed by the words in brackets. We may call it the defining subject or pearsa ċum míniġṫe.

16. "In turning round to leave, as he was going out."

17. "Let me not prevent you from doing your work."

18. "That is their way of living, washing and making up for the folk about here."
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19. "Whatever might happen him." Ṁaiseaḋ, "indeed." This word is the fisherman's, not the narrator's, Go is usually placed after such words.

20. "He thought his feet were too long until. . ." [He wished them shorter so that he might not be caught.—De H.]

21. "Considering that."

22. "You may be sure that the boy minded himself well."

23. "I cannot recall, but to the best of my belief, I used to hear, or I fancy I used to hear that this happened to the grand- father of . . ."


1. "To test it."

2. "May God not prevent your betterment."

3. "When he reached the bare bridge of Limerick." A frequent meaning of the verb dul.

4. "To and fro."

5. "They fell into conversation."

6. "The place where it was shown to me that I should find it." Lit., "the place which was shown to me to get it there."

7. "Our task is accomplished, success is ours."

8. "To raise." Distinguish between do ṫógḃáil aníos and do ṫógḃáil suas. The former would imply that the stone was raised from the bottom of the hole to the level of the diggers, or to the surface; the latter, that the stone was raised from its position below, and then laid aside without being taken from the hole.

9. In each of its lugs.

10. Prospering, improving. The suas is correct here because metaphorical.

11. They had a well-dressed appearance. We also hear do ḃí deallraḋ bíḋ agus eudaiġ orra, they appeared well fed and well clad.

13. Lit., an ancient form of writing which was in vogue long ago it was that was on it.

14. At nightfall.

15. We require help.

16. For your brother.
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17. The three of us. Lit., in a group of three. We may also write ár dtriúr, the three of us ; ḃúr dt., three of you, &c.

18. In Irish expressions for position—above, below—are usually made more definite by the use of in áirde or ṫíos. "Up over it," " down under it."

19. The word maiġistir appears to be connected with no verb. It is the emphatic subject or subject in position of emphasis. The which follows is the resumed subject. Lit., "the landlord under whom they lived, he, &c." The "he" would be ungrammatical in English, but is quite good in Irish, and is found at all periods of the language. Emphasis has been one of the great forces at work in moulding the Irish sentence, in determining, for instance, the position of the verb, and the uses of is and atá. The emphatic subject might be called an ṗearsa tionnscnaṁa, the resumed subject an t-aṫ-ṗearsa.

20. "All proceedings were to begin."

21. "At the man's departure."

22. "He was not going to speak to anybody at that time." ar not used with numerals. Do not write a ar an gcúigeaḋ lá ḋo ḃí sé innso, but an cúigeaḋ lá. This is a common mistake.

23. "He had urgent business with him." leis would be incorrect.

24. "The landlord welcomed him cordially." Lit., he set towers of welcome before him. Na múrṫa fáilte, "walls of welcome " is heard in Connacht.

25. Lit., the paying of rent to you brought (me here)— i.e., I have come to pay the rent.

26. "Spend it on the children."

27. Note how this is turned. An inferior hand would probably write is iomḋa cíos mar do ċíos-sa do ḃeaḋ uaim ċum mo ḃruid do réidteaċ.

28. "To stop the proceedings which were being taken against him."

28. "At the end of the year."

30. Better expressed, "ar a ḃfeicfir de ṫalaṁ."


1. "The manner in which Brian found an opportunity of catch-ing the Danes was as follows." The Danes are repre-sented as rath-dwellers in this legend, and take the place of some pre-Milesian folk. The word instead of aċt after loċlannaċaiḃ would be incorrect.
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2. "There was the woman uttering shriek upon shriek." For use of article with bean, see p. 63, 3.

3. See note 15, p. 55.

4. "He is starving."

5. "The amount which he is getting would not make (buy) tobacco for him."

6. "Why did the child laugh when you cried out ?"

7. See note 11, p. 52.

8. "How they signal to one another."

9. "Since we do not know where might be the entrance to, or path up to, the doors." Cf. cá ḃfuil dul insteaċ ar an tiġ seo? Where is the entrance to this house ?

10. "At the end of a month."

11. This is the rel. verb. It should not be allowed to disappear from literature. It is still commonly, but not correctly, used in many parts of the country. The verb has this rel. form only in 3rd sing, and plu., pres. and fut. an duine (or na daoine) ḃuaileas (or ḃualfeas) é, the person (or persons) who strike(s) (or will strike) him. So also, an fear ḃuaileas sé, the man whom he strikes. But in the last sentence, if we had siad instead of , we should write ḃuaileann. For sentences in which "by whom," "at whom," i.e., oblique, relative occurs, see C. C. C, p. 100, last note. See, also, above note 34, p. 54. N.B. — The above is Keating's usage, and is incorrect according to Old Irish Grammar.

12. "He told him that the light of theliss in which lie himself was working was directed towards the liss north of it [the liss in which he was working was to the west], and (he said) the light in the northern liss is directed towards the liss south of it, and the light in the southern liss is directed towards the liss east of it. All the lights are con-nected with one another."

13. "Come to-night to the liss with your men, and place some of your men at each of the three entrances." Each liss appears to have had three entrances, one facing the north to receive the signal from the liss due north, one facing north-east, and another south to signal to the two lisses in these directions. The liss of which there is question is, obviously, invisible except for the openings. It is implied that, as the direction of the signals is the same in every liss, the discovery of one liss will lead to the discovery of three others in its neighbourhood, and that the discovery of these three will lead to the discovery of others, and so on until the whole network of lisses is discovered.

14. "He continued slaying them," do ḃí sí ag obair léi, "she continued at work." This is the force of le. The people translate it "away." "He was killing them away."
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15. "When he had disposed of the last of them, except just three who were in the last liss — when he came to it [this liss] — a father and two sons were there — he said to them that he would spare their lives, if they told him how they made the beer." This is the famous drink made from a species of heather. This kind of heather is still called fraoċ na loċlannaċ. The sentence, though not incorrect, might be improved by omitting the second nuair, and writing ṫáinig sé go dtí an lios so ... agus aduḃairt.

16. "Ḋá would be incorrect. His words were, innisim, ⁊c. See S. C. na nD., p. 150 (2).

17. " B. was just as ignorant as ever as to how to make the beer."


The Peri was the name of a little collier wrecked on the Waterford coast November, 1907.

1. "Is there any large quantity of them coming in just now ?"

2. "Some were got last week, but the wind turned towards the south, and they were blown out to sea again." The air re-fers to the weather. See S.C. na nD., p. 55.

3. "How do you know but that it was not some vessel from which they were swept overboard."

4. "It must all be below in the vessel's hold."

5. "Through dint of greed they sometimes take the risk, trying to take with them a heavy freight."

6. "Not a piece." The strict translation would probably be "deuce a piece."

7. "By being put out of her course on All Souls' Night."

8. "The Lighthouse."

9. An interjection, "why, my friend."

10. This refers to the captain. He mistook the light for a steam trawler's.

11. "When he had got too far in then he found that the wind was wrong [in the wrong direction] for getting her out again."

12. "And even that was but a miracle, how they were not killed [escaped being killed] against the rocks." "There was not in that itself," &c.

13. "The captain and the sailor were trying to hold him back to put a life-buoy about him."

14. "Then, the captain could not swim."
[ 60 ]60

15. "Until they were beaten," i.e., until they could remain no longer. 16. " That left her [the ship]." 17. ** He cast off all that was on him," i.e., his clothes. 18. "He faced for the deep." So, below, c. fÁ An btrAill, "faced for the cliff [to climb up it]." 19. "Expecting every moment." 20. " [Pieces of] the cliff were slipping away from under the feet of the sailor, and the stones which were falling down almost killed the captain." 21. " Until the day dawned on him." 22. " In a clump of shrub and fern." 23. " He went towards where the dogs were." 24. " It was a marvel to hear them, so loudly they barked." Lit., "because of barking," Of. m^o]bA^. if cat) é te v^AbAf, it is a marvel of excellence, a marvel because of excellence. 25. In f An also heard. 25a. " That their ship had been wrecked below." Lit., " that (some- one or something) was after wrecking the ship on them." RAt)A-ó is the perfect passive form of |iAib, " was." 26. " In a minute." 27. He did get up." The teip simply means "too, also;" "he got up too, and he got his men up." 28. " Hot drinks." 29. (" Attending to him) until he recovered." 30. " At dawn of day." " The speckling of the day." 31. " He asked him to come up to the house." As both were below I'UAf is correct. If someone called to him from the top of the cliff he would say, rAi|i Aniop. 32. " He said he would not go, since everyone was against taking in the like of him, alive or dead." 33. *' The proper thing to do with Mine Head Lighthouse would be to put it up into the clouds." 34. " He sent a man eastwards to the coastguards to send word to Captain Moloney (the owner)." a^ expresses purpose after a verb of motion. 35. The noiii., not the gen., is commonly used after r^5<^r- 36. "Whence did she sail?" The tendency of this writer to use double questions will be noted. i<7. "She held on the same tack." Cac is, of course, mere English. [ 61 ]38. " And he thought he had not run half th<3 way." T fear itoccA is almost as bad as cAjAijce. Better : nÁ At) 'é acc VA] elf leAc riA ftijeAX) x)o cu|i "oe.

39. " That is what put him astray most of all."

40. "Accordingly."

41. "He cast out the lead.'*

42. "Her end was that she was there for him, fallen asunder like an old crib."

43. "Even that, they (the coastguards) did not allow them to take with them beyond the top of the cliff."

44. " On their own heaps (of coal), waiting for it to be auctioned."

45. "It was the vessel and all on the strand that belonged to her that was first put up for sale."

46. Why they should have been told to have sense, and take home the coal, is not quite clear.

47. " It was very difficult to take him out of the place where he was found, since the first two who found him left him where he was, and did nob even take him out of the sea, until three others came, and they took him westwards to the ScÁicín," i.e., to a cliff up which there is a path. iriAji •oo bi fé, " as he was," not " where he was."

48. " It was very hard to get him up the steps that are in that place, and one of them [lit., it is the way that one of them] had to take him in his arms and push him upwards towards the other two." The steps referred to are mere foot-holds on the face of the cliff.

49. " To a place where a horse could come to them."

50. " They were both put into the same coffin," i.e., to Jake them home. Cu does not mean "bury" here.

51. " However."

52. " I don't know in the world how he climbed up there, a place where one would imagine a cat could not walk."

53. "Pray for them, indeed!" In a bantering tone, as though the suggestion were absurd. So all similar expressions — "You ought to buy a horse." " Buy one, indeed ! " ATDeiftim-fe ceAtinAc leAc. Literally the meaning is " I say buying to you."


1. " He was much given to card-playing." nil Aon ceojtA leAC has often the meaning, " you cannot be surpassed." [ 62 ]62 8. •* There is no place in which he would hear of a game of cards being played, even though it (fé) were seven miles from him, but he would go there," Pronouns referring to place are usually masculine. 3. " Very late in the night." 4. " That he would go as a fourth man under it." 5. " With little beads of perspiration on her (forehead)." 6. "He slapped the palm of her hand." 7. "You are in safe charge, on the path of safety, in safe con- dition." é -oo cu|i A lÁirii An -olijeAT), to place him in charge of the law. 8. " My relatives have had me (ill) in bed for the last three montbg." 9. See note 3, p. 56. 10. " That her brother had done her a great kindness." 11. " To tell the master of the house that a man had taken the horse from the field." xif An bpÁijic would be incorrect. xp would imply that the horse had been buried in the field, and that he was taken out of it. 12. " That it was a great piece of villainy for the man who had taken it." 13. See note 24, p. 57. 14. " The poor man was tired and afflicted." 15. " "When he turned round to look about the house. 16. This clause is an interjected explanation, common in Irish. 17. From the back of the house where she was. 18. Pronounced short c«. So, too, if rt>, ip me. The reason is that the emphasis is on the affirmation or denial. When the pronoun is emphasised the whole sentence is given as in the following words: Hi cufA mo injeAn. 19. '* For it had a human shape." A wooden image had been put in her place. 20. *• He never went to any card (-playing) from that out." puisin CÚI A.^^ iiK cx vus ui tiA 5c ac* 1. •• The kitten of the back of the fireplace, and the King of the Cats." This is a form of the story " Puss in Boots." A portion of it has been omitted. 2. " He had five or six children." 3. " To bring him to the shoe-maker, so that he might take his measure." The cat is spoken of as " he " in Irish. [ 63 ]63 4. " Since he had no boot (boots) that would fit him." 5. "They will not." 6. "And he carried him off." 7. "He used to tell them they need not mind." 8. "On your life, Walter. On your life, Walter." 9. "That is, not to tell them." 10. " When he wag being torn to pieces by the dogs." 11. The é is in apposition with the message he is to bring. Tell it to the kitten, viz., that he had killed the King of the Cats. 12. "She increased her size." 13. " She sprang at Walter's throat." Lit., went with a spring at his throat. 14. "They all but failed to release him from her." 15. "But for that, she would have torn Walter's throat." 16. When they were killing her, she said, " it was well for you, Walter, that you had your friends to help you." 6ío-ó is guasi-2yassive. ■putÁiji, lit., excess. Your friends were not in excess (for your need), oi-oe mútnce, lit., a teacher, counsellor, niúince is gen. of v. noun múineAx», "master of (for) teaching," An ■pex

"DO t)i ^5 cn^ijceómeAóc. 

1. "In order to get sea-weed." 2. " To see if he could take it off with him." 3. " Indeed," said he, " you are too heavy. I cannot take you away with me." "You can," said a man at his side. Lit., the man — the article so used with a subject not pre- viously mentioned indicates its importance in the narra- tive. 4. 50 -oct in S. L. is construed as a preposition. See c. C. C, p. 107, note. 5. "Sixteen (shillings)." 6. " That that man would drown him, and not to go to the strand again. 7. " I will not mind going there to-night." 8. " You would have been in no danger." 9. See note 21, p. 53. 10. "If you had gone down to-night, you would have got more money than all your ancestors and posterity could spend {lit., all that went before you and will come after you)." [ 64 ]64 tiA sci^btn'óce* 1 . •♦ Are you taking your breakfast ? Keep back from one another." Ice is used like the German essen of taking any meal. The sequel tells us that the reference is to breakfast. 2. "Indeed, we are pressing close together. Come and make one of us." The form in brackets was given me by an Ulster speaker. It is probably common in all districts. 3. " Why, you have been wonderfully early this morning." 4. " With me it's often the early-rising of Conor of the Sieves, one morning early and two mornings late. Lit, "the thing, i.e., the state or condition, which I often have (in which I often am), is namely the earl3'^-rÍ8Íng of Conor." 5. "Just as well for you." 6. " Enough for you the long time during which you rose betimes, and another thing (i.e., and moreover), when (old) age is creeping upon you, one likes a spell of indulgence in the morning." 7. " He who has not a herd of kine on the hill, let him have peace in bed." 8. "Are you not very witty this morning, though the cat seldom carries harness," i.e., though you seldom are witty. Ó has the meaning " although " here. So used, also, in the phrase Ó fAi-o é An LÁ for -oA fAix), &c. 9. "Did you never hear that the host of Morough could not keep women in talk when they have drunk tea ?" " What good is tea when it is unshod, i.e., without milk. See Dinneen's Diet, for nioncAT). The fiuAJ fh. here means nothing more than a vast number of people. 10. " To see whether it would be ready to make a rick of it." lút, dat. of eot. The t is pronounced medium. In lúl lit. means "in fit condition of knowledge," hence "in fit condition." AVA CÚ in 1ÚL -oon "OAtt, you are a match for the blind man. AzÁ zú in nil cum An bócAiji, ready for the road. ACÁ CÚ in 1ÚI A] é -oo "úennAni, you are able to do it, properly equipped for doing it. 11. " We can talk and work at the same time." Caji-uaiI, lit., card. 12. "It is just as well, we may as well." 13. " By the way, is it not marvellous how the world is changing? Many a time in the past have we heard that the longer we live the more we see and hear." 14. " May God release their souls. There is no fear of their being- cold." The sing. AnAm is right. The reference is to some people who lived in the place where two new houses have been erected for the teaching of Irish, ColÁifce riA Uinne. [ 65 ]65 15. "It is quite true that the world sees many a one come and go." C«}t -oe, to get rid of, to pass from one's hands. 16. "I had almost forgotten to ask." 17. " There is no one who could stir a foot but would go to see the fvm, to hear the beautiful songs, and to look on at a fine bout of Irish dancing." 18. " It is very cheering to one's spirits to go there." •DeunAtin [TJo-jni] fé cÓ5t)Áil A|t mo cjioi-oe, it cheers up my spirits. The Irish is much stronger than the English. 19. " Declaiming the story of the Adventures of Death." The name of a well-known piece by Denn. 20. ** Stretched on his side out in front of him, with his head sup- ported by his hand. The Irish ^definition I got was t)eic fince A] no leAC-cliAtÁin, -oo tiillinn [uitle] ^úr, Ajuf ■oo bAif VÁ x>o ceAnn. 21. *' It would make you feel sad when he used to ask Death in such a down-hearted way for a respite." 'OiomACjioi-o- CAc, dispirited, may be a form of x)ut)c]toi-DeAc. See S. C. riA n"0., p. 82, where the x> is reported as broad. 22. That is, about a mile away. Strange though it seem, the dramatic representation of the dialogue between Death and the Sinner merely moved to laughter, not, of course, the laughter of ridicule. The people were amused at the thought that anyone should be allowed to plead with Death. 23. " Others said that it was not Death that was there, but that probably it was like him (i.e., that the actor who took the part of Death, behaved as Death really does), for a man is wrestling with Death for a certain length of time," 24. "It is probable that there is some explanation ior it," i.e., for the usual length of the last struggle for life. During this time, it is suggested, the real dialogue with Death takes place. The following Irish note on the sentence, If cofiTiAil 50 mbionn cúif éigin Leip was given to me in reply to the question cat) teif ? Aí^ f ai-d bionn ah -ouine A5 iom|tAX) leif An mbÁf. riÁn Aijiij cú jiiAni 50 •ocAjinAitijijeAnn An -ouine cfi put no c]ii optiA pé [fuL] bpAJAi-ó fé bÁp? -Agup on tJAi|i -oo UAiiitAinjeocAX) pé An ceu-o put 50 "oci 50 'orAHjtAineócA'ó pe An put "oéit)e- AUAc, -oo cfópeÁ reAtigA An -ouine aj coinunje Ajup é aj; 505IÁ1I ipri5 in A ceAnn, mA] -oo bcAX) pe -o'lApf aitj CAinr ■DO -oeunAiri. 25. "When the stage tumbled right over." ScAfAl is Keating's word for stage, cluice for play. 26. " For fear that anything had befallen him." 27. ** This stage won't save the hay for us." [ 66 ]28. "Let us cast it (the topic) aside."

29. "The little yearlings."

30. "Here we set to work, and may God bless us, and may we not be long waiting till meal-time. May it not be long after that, that the sun will set. Whoso grudges what we eat, and slights what we do, may they not have a bite on St. Brigid's day, nor know their food on St. Michael's."

31. "The year it was let out in small lots for tillage." Reaċtas, lit., stewardship.

31a. "From the time they were set, till (the people) were going to dig them." See note 25a, p. 60.

32. "Twenty years to this present time."

33. "Hush!"

34. "I met him over at the cross last night as he was going for the loan of a scythe."

35. "For the new year."

36. "She is married to a man who is in the fire-brigade."

37. "No blessing on it for fire." This "for" was used in old English—"a murrain on you for a roguish knave." Traces of it are still found in German, and in the people's English.

38. "Very dangerous."

39. "Did you ever see anything of these doings, you who were in America?"

40. "So (mar sin), I suppose you cannot give us any account of it;" cf. 19, p. 65. Taḃairt amaċ, lit., bring out, show publicly, hence recount or declaim. Taḃairt amaċ also means a procession, a public show.

41. "All beneath him gave way."

42. "Neither tale nor tidings of him have been got since."

43. "Hush, be still." Lit., "whist, gently."

44. "Here is Johnny, coming down." I have seen seo é in some books (recent), but do not know on what authority it rests. The usage which I have noted is as follows: ṡidé an fear, this (near me) is the man; sin é an fear, that (near you, or further from me) is the man; ṡud é an fear, that (near him or them, yonder, more remote) is the man. In referring to topics as "that is what I was saying" use sin é do ḃí mé a ráḋ, or in pointing out parts of a picture "this is the man's head," sin é ceann an ḟir. The contents of a picture are conceived as remote, because unreal. Ṡid é ceann an ḟir would be used only of the living subject. Ṡid í and Ṡid iad are of course also used acc. to exigencies of grammar. When handing an object to another you say seo ḋuit do leaḃar—do ċasóg, etc., "here is your book; your coat." [ 67 ]67 In such cases f eo is under the government of aj under- stood. X)uir, or some such word must be used. In Ulster feo x)o leAbAjt, fin -oo leAbA^i — "here (or this) is your book," " there (or that) is your book " — is heard. A-^ is to be supphed. In Munster, we do not say, fin x>o leAbAjt or fin -outc -oo leAbAf , but fin é -oo teAt)Af Ann- fin AjAC. CÁ'it mo IcAtJAH ? Sin í Annfin ajac i. (The fern. pron. is used here because leAbAji does not occur in the sentence.) See Fr. O'Leary, p. 46, mion-CAinc III. He does not use feo é, but f i-oé, fi-oí as above. [Si-oé is for fiú-oé. The é was accented and weakened the iú of fiii-o.— De H.] 45. " I suppose you have come to us with news from the pot," lit.^ "from the crane," the swing -hook from which pots are sus- pended over the fire on the hearth. 46. " She heard the loud clatter of your talk." Note that AjAib ia possessive. We cannot write X)ú n-An-gfeAtJA-o CAinue, which would be appalling. The possessives mo, -oo, etc.. are used only with the names of concrete things, such as mo tCAbAf, "OO tUAf AfCAl, CtC. 47. " She sent me hither to teU you to go on with your work, and not to talk." 48. "I would not doubt the old heroine. Ill she deserves that much work should be done for her." Lit., it is ill (i.e., ill- deserved) respect (aoi) to her. Like the word ÁiLleÁn, "a beauty," sarcasm has given ciAiffeAC (a thrush), a depreciatory sense. 49. " It is an extraordinary thing, if people can't talk for their own amusement [lit., for themselves), to shorten the day." 60. " Cease (hush). The poor woman is plagued just now, since her hay is half -rotted." The uiffi is ethical. Its effect is better seen by translating, " since she has got her hay half-rotted." '• A race, i.e., pursuit, at your heels," "May the poor man rise sound in health." See 40, p. 69. [" May it be an omen of his rising." The subject é is omitted at the end of the sentence. — De H,] " She sent him up with a gallon of milk to you." I would not, doubt her, poor creatui-e. May God never see her without milk, nor its sources " (i.e., the cows). " I am improving, thank God. I feel (ííí., I notice myself) very well to-night." [ 68 ]5. " I must run off (be off) again." 6. " Yes, I should be somewliat afraid.'* 7. "Too late." 8. "You have no resemblance to ' John without Fear.' 9. "Who was ' John without Fear ? ' " 10. " He used to hear everyone speaking of fear." 11. " He asked lodging of the woman of the house." 12. " She said he could (be in, i.e., have a lodging)." 13. "As they were spending the night." li. " She had only one little cow, and all that she had for the cow to stand on (i.e.,. her only field) was a little inch outside her house {lit., out there), and that it used be trampled down every morning." An inch is a field beside a river, flooded at times during the year. pAf Ait, to trample or trespass on. 15. " He leaned against the ditch." 16. "He seized a caman as well as the rest (as anyone). They played the match with spirit." 17. "Everyone threw away their camans, and it was the same man that gathered them up again." 18. "Injuring the poor, destitute widow." The boicc is com- passionate. *Oeilb, dat. of •ocAtb, means wretchedly poor. 19. " He said that he could do nothing but let him (i.e., John), come the following night, and put it {i.e., the matter) before the assembly." 20. •' John brought them to task (De H.), and said to them that their behaviour (lit., the work which they were doing) was shameful, and that they ought to find the countrywide enough, and not injure a poor woman, who had only one little field." 21. " Until it was evening twilight." The phrase means "equally distinct, man and bush," i.e., one cannot be distinguished from the other. This explanation, as put in Irish, was cotri-f otAf "oo heA-i) a^ax: oaí 22. " Entertainment for the night." 23. " They said he could have it, but that he should sleep in an out- house." 24. " He said he did not care where ho should be put, provided that (lit., but that) he were under the roof-tree." 26. " At the back of the kitchen." "Behind my back," i -ocAot) tA ■oiom. " The house below [above] this one," ax) n j •ocAot) ciof [tuAf] -oe An n^ i^eo. 62. " When he had eaten hi» supper." 27. " He had a smoke." [ 69 ]69 28. " It was not long" till three men came (burst) in with a coffin on their shoulders." 29. " There you are, all by yourself." There is a tone of sympathy in -ouic féin. 30. " To put you to the fire, and warm you." 31. " He was not getting warm at all." 32. " Better for him (John) to lay him on the bed inside himself. He did so, and lay down outside him. They were not long [lit., it was short) there when his shoulder was bitten (íií., a bite was taken out of). Be quiet there, or do you want {lit., is it a desire you have) to devour me, notwithstanding my kindness to you." For expressions such as -oÁ feAbAp, see nouns of degree, p. 130, S. C. tia nt)., and Fr. O'Leary, p. 7, ITIion-CAiiic III. 33. ♦* Get out of {lit., be out of) the bed now, since you would not remain quiet, and behave yourself." 34. "You need have no fear of me ; lit., I am not a danger, a source of danger to you." 35. "I was killed unknown to him," No need to write an i before 5An flop, any more than an a before -o'iajihai-o. They are parasites. 36. "I was buried beneath the great tree." 37. " To get a few masses said for me." 38. •' He will find a firkin of gold beneath the foot of hig own bed, and another at its head." 39. " I will never interfere with (put interference on) anyone again. Farewell." slÁn ajat:, said by one who is departing. 40. *• The master of the house enjoyed no sound sleep that night." Such sentences are difficult to analyse. The subject is contained in the phrase -oo peAH au ti5e (what belonged was given) to the master was not sound slumber. So, above, *' may (what belongs to, is in store) for him be a healthful rising." See S. C. iia tTO., p. 158 (6), and following. But see Dr. Henebry's note 2, p. 07. 41. *' During the course of the night.*' 42. '* Stay till to-morrow, at all events." 43. " We shall be (coming) in at the time the cows are milking." 44. " Milk the cow into it thick and warm, so that there will be a top (a flake) of foam on it, and put the little fish into it." 45. " That you are sorry you have not a better drink to give him." 46. " The moment John raised the jug to his lips the fish went into , his mouth, and he fell down in a faint on the spot." Lit., "put the jug on his head," "the fish went back into hig mouth," " he went into weakness." [ 70 ]70 47. ♦• It is just the fact." 48. "I will not go any further in search of it, on its track." 49. " He stayed with them." 50. " And there's for you (the story of) John without Fear." 61. *' Goodness help me. If I had no fear a while ago (I assure you) that I may be afraid now. Better for you to come down the road with me, Paddy." e-AccuA iiA con •ouit!)e. 1. "The adventures of the Black Hound." This story tnuijur Ó muLnAon (Maurice Ryan) learned by rote about fifty years ago, from a very old man, miceul ó mutjiAon. tnuinif Ó tnuttiAon is one of the few real feAncAi-ote, that is, one of the few reciters who have preserved the exact words and method of delivery of previous generations Dr. Henebry noted the peculiar structure of the sentences, and the fondness for short monosyllabic endiogs in this tale. From the pronunciation of certain ^words, he surmises that the story came originally from Kerry. He has no doubt that it is a prose version of a poetic composition. The story was reported, a matter of no small difficulty, by SeÁAti Ó CA-otA, S|tÁi-o am ttluitinn, ConncAe CoitcAi^e, and afterwards verified by me at a second recital. eAcctiA riA con -ouibe, pronounced cotiA. Such forms as ■óeiti, •oeunAnn, &c., have been allowed to stand. 2. "One day when Finn, king of the princely Fianna, arose, what should he see coming in his direction, before the sun shone towards us over the sea, but a man with a red hood • and a black hound. Redder than the rose were his cheeks, the magician, and not mean was his appearance, for his hair was black, a noble crown was on his head, a royal star on his right side, a silver rod in his hand, a gold chain around the neck of his hound, polished spurs on the paws of his whelp, as he advanced to conflict with the Fianna." "OAit éitnj;, on which he rose. The -co, if -oo be the word concealed in -oÁíi, has the meaning "at" or " on, as it has in the phrase ca-o acá cú a [-do] -oeunAni. It does not mean, " one of the days on which F. rose." 3. " Bitter torture be mine . . . the like of Bran I never yet saw, but here she comes towards us, the Black Hound." 4. " Why should you set the strange dog in comparison with our whelp, but when the magician comes to us across the strand, I will get from him an exchange of hounds," That is, Finn would give one of his dogs, but not Bran, in exchange for the Black Hound. The magician's challenge interfered with his design. [ 71 ]71 5, "Bold and brave." "Oonn, " valiant," the same word is found in •OonncA'ó, donno catus, bravely fighting. — De H. Fc^ alliteration, c/. "oeA-pj X)iomAoin, " black, and bitter. 0. "He proclaimed aloud to the Fianna of Fail," i.e., of Ireland. The corruption pÁit, appears to be due to the concurrence of the b of the dative, unaspirated, and following p. 7. "For they were always fighting." A- bun, in action. The word jii^ni-óe is doubtful. I give the f c'.s gloss. 8. "No hound of them lasted the second bout with her, she was 80 fierce." 9. " Brought out the membrane on the side." <p ah 5co|tp was not said. 10. '* Swifter than the whirlwind making its swoop." Uncertain. 11. "So that she killed the thirteen score of young hounds." 12. " Which he called the slaughter-hounds." — De H. 13. Understand A5 ConÁn after 50 c^uiaix), "and a bitter grudge (Conan bore) against Bran," because he was better than his hounds, and it was not probable that he would allow them to be put forward to save Bran. 13a. "In hope that through her (the fortune of) the day may be successful." 14. " In the shape of a hound- whelp you will have to face her." 15. " For all the gold and shining silver which the king gets carried from distant lands, I would not for the sake of (all) that face the cruel and hideous whelp, but still I will slip down one of my fierce dogs." céin was glossed in imijcéin AmAc, "away a long distance." I understand this to mean a long distance, not away from the king, but away from the tributary who sends the money, óéin may possibly be for Ó céin. [Céin, gen. of pers. name CiAn. — De H.] The b in cAt)Ai|iT:, jAbÁit, etc., was pronounced as "v." 16. "I assure you (the Fianna), if she gets wound or hurt, and I assure you, O little magician who came afar, that I will take satisfaction from you with my two hands as long as the rough stones last (that are) among the grass." 17. " No storm was ever heard rising on the mountain nor show«r from lake, that came more thickly (i.e., more violently^ than Conan, sending the stones home {i.e., true to their mark) against the magician." IS. '^ I appeal for protection to you, O king of the Fianna, and (to) the generous blood in your host (De H.). Allow me under your shield, and save me from the bald man and his stones." [ 72 ]72 19. "It is no protection for you to go beneath my shield, for I never yet forbade the bald man anything, but that he per- sisted in doing it the more for that. But a decision I give in this matter, and again I say that it is meet to give it, viz., that the two heroes should join in conflict, and whichever of you be laid low, that the head be taken from him." An -oÁ x)í<Nf, the "oÁ is superfluous. "Oidf means " two men." 20. " What was the grip, with which Conan determined to seize the champion, but the grip of ' emmet and jaw,' and the Fianna of Innisf ail heard the crash which he took from his body." SeAtijAn is an ant or emmet. — De H. 21. "By (as a result of) the grip of might you are down, O little magician that came from afar. Come with me to my grey (whet-) stone, to see whether my keen blade be true of edge." 22. '« And through excess of fear of death, there remained alive (within him) only two veins that were throbbing at the back of his head." '* Good," said Conan, " if it would spite you to let you live, I will not slay you." Phrases like x>Á mbux) CAnncAf o|ic and ni coimi|tce x>wz should be carefully studied. One can imagine what an inferior writer would say. 23. " Seven battalions." 24. ♦' The magician revived, and fled home to Greece." 25. ** To see whether anyone was coming in pursuit of them " ; lit., any pursuit coming to them. 26. " There was no tear of all that he shed from his two eyes that did not go through the rock to its base." 27. •* When she (Bran) was being wounded and torn and ready to stretch on the grass, there was only a mere scratch being cut in the black hound's back." 28. '** Finn mac Cumhaill," said Conan, " why do you not take thought of your dog to-day, and of the vast deal of knowledge you ever got from your finger, and if I had your thumb between my jaws I would get my full of knowledge from it to last my lifetime." An allusion to the magic virtue in the thumb of Finn. By pressing his teeth into it, he obtained knowledge of how to escape from difliculties. 29. Lit.f ** it would not be likely for me that it would ever again be mine." 30. '• That the black hound could never be defeated imtil her name, Cor, were brought against (i.e., mentioned to) her." Dr. Henebry says that co|t was suggested by the undignified English *' cur." It is just possible that the word is used punningly here and further down. Here, the gentence [ 73 ]73 could be translated " until her name were brought against her once (a turn)." 31. "Ah, noble Bran, it was you that won every battle, however great. It was you that vanquished the venomous boar of !5. an G. It was you that vanquished the cruel, white, bounding stag. It was you that won the battle of I. ui C, in which our backs were fastened to the ground, and do not look this way or that, but cast out Cor, the fierce, hideous whelp." "Cast out Cor," or "throw out of action." 32. " She played the deft feat in the proper way and left the black hound stretched on the sod on which she had killed her." 33. "I will give you the end (treatment) which your dog has found." 34. " Well for you that you had the information to-day from the finger of Finn, else you would have been without a hound as I am, and Cor would be returning with me to Greece." 35. " Then," said Conan (i.e., when telling this story on a subse- quent occasion), " I conducted the magician to his own land as a captive without any hound." Céilt probably for jéitt, gen. of jiaII, a hostage. 36. *' Here is a health to you, Fianna of Inisfail," said Conan, " and drink a wholesome draught, or have you ever seen a better friend {lit., affection) to the bald man than the little magician at whom I used to cast a stone?" The Ai|t means " on him." [The metre is easily restored here ; — Siúx> ojiAib, A f?iAnnA -pÁil If ótAix) 50 foltÁin t)eoc A bpACA fit) cion -DO bpeAf ji lonÁ [ATI 5f VIA5AC] seAfu f offAmbiiAilinn clo6. The words xieoc and ctoc, if used in the original, instead of xjij and ctoic would indicate that the poem belonged to a late period. The last line is too long.] bnosnA. 1. It is not more probable that you are wrong than that you are right. The ciaII here refers to one's way of looking at a question. 2. Outgrew his strength. 3. The churl's greed, seeking to get back what he has given. Applied to one who sets about making an effort and then withdraws. I have seen rA|if Ainj fiAft in some books or papers (recent) as the Irish of " withdraw (a statement)." What its value is I cannot say. Keating uses jAif m caji n-A1f "OO ■oeutiAiTi A]. [ 74 ]74 4. Harsh days and ill-clad men, the hag of Mapsfcown used to say, so eager was she to get the people's labour (i.e., to get the work out of them). 6. The night is two-thirds of illness (i.e., the night is the more trying time to sick people). 7. Three meals of nettles in March, you need not fear illness of head or foot till a year's end. poc rinni]^, a short fit of illness that lasts no more than a day. 8. Drawing towards eternity. In the storm of death. In the throes of death. 9. bnut, a mass of molten metal. Here, the scum on the surface of boiled milk. 10. " If a drop of boiling (boiled) water were to fall on your arm — may evil be far from us — and if a blister were not to come upon it (lit., * and that a blister were not to rise '), it would be scalded." UuAT)--oói5T:e, scorched. The ai^i after clog refers to the part of the arm on which the water fell. 11. ihe water which boils away is conceived as being absorbed by the pot. However, j-úi^ce can be translated " evaporated." 12. "A look (f illeA-ó) satisfies." 13. ScAtTiAX), incorrectly fcút, noun or verb, "a peel, a piece of loose flesh," " to unwind, ravel, get undone." 14. " The place of his killing was not there," i.e., he did not stand on the spot which would have marked him for death. So, too, certain places are supposed to predestine to hunger, or error. The expressions may be regarded as a slightly more picturesque way of saying tii |iAib An bÁf i n-oÁn -oó, " death (hunger, etc.) was not in destiny for him." 15. The Af after x)eijnAiTi is said by Dr. Henebry to be in imitation of the *' out " in " to make out a living." *Oo c«|i, applied to mone}', means "to invest." "They say the cat three times in the night meditates killing someone," a way of saying that the cat is not fully domesticated. 19. It is plain that there is ever so much more of this child's song than I give. All the details of woman's work, we may sup- pose, are mentioned in the complete version. Note that tiÁ is used instead of no. The idea is negative, the sentence being equivalent to "there is no one to do this thing nor that thing for you." [nÁ because a question is asked. — De H.] So, too, in a Connaught song we find CA-oé ah ét^reAcc r|uu|t tiÁ ceAipA? i.e., equivalently, " neither three nor four would matter," For further information see JaIka iia C. 73, 3G. 21. " Woe on him who lets a fine day go because of a wet morning." nio)t -ÓA-OA teif, "he would have thought nothing of." The explanations in some of these pieces may not appear very easy to the learner. This is due to their distinctive [ 75 ]75 Irish colouring, to their prooeediug from a mental outlook with which he is not familiar. 25. The sea is no respecter of persons. 26. Mischievous boys are wont to annoy superstitious fishermen with these words, " a fox on your hook ; you will catch no fish to-day." 27. A jocose way of saying, -AcÁ An cofAC AjAm 0|tc, "I have been before you." 28. Better many loads {lit., a constant load) than a load too heavy, i.e., than " a lazy man's load," the load of one who tries to carry all In one journey. 29. " Truth in wine." 30. " Wet skirts, half-day's work, and home betimes." Said when the women have to come home from the fields owing to the rain. Probably aticuac is right, i.e., unseasonable time, before the proper time. 32. " It was kind of you to come, especially as you have come un«  bidden." 33. "A good daughter is son and daughter," i.e., by marriage, brings a bread-winner into the house. 34. " It is a great favour from heaven to any mother who rears children without blemish," i.e., with none of them blind of an eye, lame, or (imperfect in) any way. Cf. p. 53, 21. 36. " You have neither soul nor feeling." 37. " His manners are very proud, i.e., his conceit of himself is beyond what it need be (vÁ ceAt, beyond need). 39. "AcÁfé-oiAn mÁ t)ei"ó fé Ag ):eA|icAinn, it will hardly rain (it is hard, if it will)." AzÁ fé -oiati tió beí-ó f é Ag peA^- } tAinn, it will hardly not rain, fail to rain, it is almost sure to rain. Hence, translate : It is almost certain that I can do no good {lit., that I have no ploughing, no field to plough, figurative for •• no embers to stir into a blaze "). 40. "A slow fire for pork ; a moderate fire for mutton ; a roaring blaze for beef, and a long time for it to cook (and to be cooking it for ever)." 42. " The peace maker (the go between) never yet escaped." "OuL Af , escape. 43. The first proverb means that boasting is far removed from achievement. ScocAi^ie, a trumpeter, one who blows his own horn ; fzoc, a trumpet. ScocAi|ieAcc is a good word for "advertising." ScuAitn, lit., modesty, has the mean^ ing " silent achievement, success or efficiency without boasting." This second shade of meaning is found in the phrase bAin ai* x>o fcuAim pein é, discover it by your own ability, ingenuity. The second proverb, "the cake is far [ 76 ]76 from the embers," i.e., though made, is not yet baked, is equivalent to *• many a slip 'twixt cup and lip." Similarly ni iriAii fíLceA|i, bíceA^u 44, The fHAOcÁtn cAji^tAij "whortleberries (vulg. 'hurts,' i.e., ' whorts ') of spring " are hailstones (P. O'Kiely). io. Said of one who is not careful of animal or implement loaned to him by a neighbour, 47. " He is no judge of the weather who does not live near (handy to) the strand, or close to the cliffs." 48. " There shall be a paying, a paying," said the voice (the ghost). "What will pay?" said Lenihane. "The children of the children of Lenihane," "If it goes the length of that," said Lenihane, " I need not mind what I do." Ó. fAit) fin is correct, not An -pAi-o fin, which would mean *' that length " as contrasted with " this length." So, too, A oijteAX) fin rather than An oif cat) fin. The A-fin is the genitive of é fin, 4S>. -poifi-oe is one who makes a spurt but does not maintain it. pogA, a sudden rush. The termination -fi-oe in some places denotes agent. I have heard people inter- pret ceol fix)e as "musician," not "fairy music." tlÁ feAfócAX), "that would not hold out," 50, tiAin, time, one's turn. Here, "one's turn at the forge." -AcÁ An nAin A^Am o]z, my turn is before yours. See 27, p. 75. 51. "May I not rise, if rise I can." nA^ beifim a] cojijiuije (a jocose asseveration), " that I might not stir," lit., "May I not catch, arrive at, stirring." 52. "If I went to see (aj of purpose after verb of motion) a sick person, «nd if (lit., ' and that') I were to ask him how he was, he might say, * I am better,' I would say, ' may you be better to-morrow,' as Rory said to his mother." 53, " Pass no sentence or judgment on anyone. To God it belongs first to pass judgment." 54. "He has no power (activity) of speech." UiAn, "direction," " he cannot walk or direct his movements." 55, "The great feast of Mary in the Autumn," i.e., Lady Day, lleACCAife, a dairyman, one who hires cattle in the manner described. He is " sad on Lady Day," since on that day he has to restore the cattle. 67. " Easy to knead close to the meal," i.e., easy to work with plenty of material at hand. 58. "Egg-shell. Pointed end. Round end, top. Membrane, Glair. or white. Yolk," 60. "A fine, well-furnished house " [ 77 ]77 61. "A leader or fugle -man — " Check yourself " (take back out of yourself, reduce yourself). You would say that to a man working in advance of you. " That is a great check, reverse to him," you would say of one who came down in the world." 62. "Do not put any water into that basin. You will wet the wall and every place." 63. One of the many superstitions which help to prevent people from breaking the Sabbath. " Any one drowned with any (clothes) of Sunday's washing on him is never found." The conditional is always used in such statements, being equivalent to " if anyone were drowned," or '* whoever be drowned." 64. "That boat is condemned, is unseaworthy." So, too, acá An CBAc fin Ó cion. This phrase is in common use. ó cion, " removed from esteem, repute." 60. Note the reply ni hiongnAX) -ouic, " don't mention it." To serve you as I have served you is no wonder, you are so deserving 67. "A steady head disentangles thread, deals with a complication. 08. In trniAji nA liAimtéif e is also heard, " in the trough, or slough, of misfortune." 69. " An ill housewife makes many journeys," lit, is " often down " to fetch something which she has forgotten. 70. " Eagerness to win is the gamester's undoing." 71. A chant for All Hallow's Eve. Recited by boys who go about begging alms half in jest, on All Hallow's Eve. All such pieces should be learned by rote : — "To-night is All Hallow Eve, O Mongo, O Mango. A wisp in the windows. Let the doors be closed. Arise, O woman of the house, retire in meekness, return with plenty. Bring with you a hunk of bread [and butter], the colour of your cheek, high as a hare's-leap, and a cock's stride (high) of butter on it. Bring me a noggin of thick, rich, sweet milk (a noggin) wherein there shall be new milk at its edge and cream at its top, so that it may go in hills and come in mountains, and that you'd think it would suffocate me, and my long loss ! there'd be no fear for me. Milk of the clots, ill is the food 'twould be, only that it might "make a drink for the fever- stricken. It (the milk) spent three days and three nights in the tub of the iron hoops, until my two eyes saw the grey moss through it (in it). Through excess of greed for butter, the women worked ruin on it." You cannot expect close sense in such pieces. The " going in hills and coming in mountains," probably refers [ 78 ]78 to the swallowing of the milk on which heavy clots of cream are floating. 72. Legend of a cow called ah 5. 5. [Spelled ^AimneAc not jAibneAc. The cow is well known in Sanskrit. — De H,] A-ot>t)Ai|ic f Í 50 mbeAX) ah -oiAbAt "oo conjnAtri -oi, " she said she would have misfortune as her helper, or else she would bring a vessel that she (the cow) could not fill. She took her sieve, and she began to milk the cow into it. Why is fi véiti used after -ociubiiA-o? Because the actual words used were cnib|tA mife or r;iubpAt)-iv, " 1 will bring a vessel." So, if one says (if) mife pÁ-o|tAi5, we report his words, A-oubAi|ir fé jxit^Ab é )?éin pÁ-onAi^, and not sujiAb é pÁ-onAij é, which would mean "he said that he (some one else, not the speaker) was Patrick." A strip. 2. A lump. 3. Curlew. 4. Herring. 5. Wing. She used to flee, run off, by the ditches, i.e., through the fields. " Losing her shape and colour." The tense used by the speaker is preserved. "I have not been to school for such and such a length of time." "God help us, dear." " Why, where else do you he?" Ca-o eile prefixed to inter- rogative pronouns, cÁ, CAt), c At 01 n, means " else" — where else, what else, when else. It denotes surprise. CACOin eite cÁinij fé, e.g.^ simply means "At what other time did he come?" But CAt) eite CAcoin -co tiocpAX) fé means " Why, when else would he come ?" 7. " Make off, run off." 8. Do not write acá fé A5 -out a fcoit. 9. "A heifer." 10. "Straying." 11. "I will do so." Future of xtojnim. 12. " My mother told me to ask you such and such a question." 13. " Three drops of the water of three boundaries," i.e., where three boundaries meet. 14. "To shake, sprinkle." 15. '* In succession." 16. " About starting." 17. •' Not to come near her any more. 18. "Too clever, too acute for me." 75. 1. Story of the thunderbolt, 2. A " sop," a wisp. 3. Low water. 4. A handful of dilisk, 5. The flash. 0. " When I remembered that I had the reaping-hook in my hand." 73. 1. 74. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. [ 79 ]7. I thought it hard, was reluctant to.

8. "For every two or three steps I used to take."

9. "A burst of thunder."

10. "On the top, point of my two knees."

11. The flood of rain rushing down the path up the cliff.

12. Would sweep.

13. "Going off in the direction of Watercliff,"

14. "Ploughing the sea as it went."

15. "Terror," lit. scourging. For sceiṁleaḋ.

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