Main Page/Түрқменчә

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Language info
ISO 639 code tk
English name Turkmen
Native name Түрқмен
Wikidata Q9267
Category Түрқмен (99 pages)

Turkmen (Түркменчә, Түркмен дили; تورکمن تیلى ,تورکمنچه; [t̪yɾkment͡ʃe], [t̪yɾkmen d̪ili]) is a Turkic language spoken by around 5 million people in Turkmenistan, where it is the official state language, as well as by around 1,400,000 people in northeastern Iran,The group known as "Iraqi Turkmen" are actually speakers of South Azeri and not all tribes that are called "Turkmen" in northeastern Iran are speakers of Turkmen; many are speakers of Khorasani Turkic. 700,000 people in northwestern Afghanistan, and Turkmen communities abroad.

The Turkmen language is spoken mostly in Europe and Asia. The two-letter code reserved for Turkmen domains in wikimedia projects is tk.



Turkmen is a member of the East Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages; its closest relatives being Anatolian Turkish and Azerbaijani Turkish, with which it shares a relatively high degree ofmutual intelligibility.

Turkmen has vowel harmony, is agglutinative, and has no grammatical gender. Word order is subject–object–verb.

Written Turkmen today is based on the Teke (Tekke) dialect.The Teke dialect is sometimes (especially in Afghanistan) referred to as "Chagatai", but like all Turkmen dialects it reflects only a limited influence from classical |Chagatai.

Writing system


Arabic alphabet (-1923)

ا ب پ ت ث ج چ د
ر ز س ش غ ق ی گ
ڴ ک م ن و ۇ ه ل
ي ء

Latin alphabet, Yanalif (1924-1938)

А а B b C c Ç ç D d E e Ә ә F f
G g Ƣ ƣ H h İ i J j K k Қ қ L l
М м N n Ŋ ŋ О о Ө ө Р р R r S s
Ş ş T t U u Ų ų Ŭ ŭ V v X x Z z
Ƶ ƶ Ь ь

Current writing systems and their pronunciations

English Approximation
A a А а ا [ɑ, ɑː] Father
B b Б б ب [b] Ball
Ç ç Ч ч چ [t͡ʃ] Cheek
D d Д д د [d] Dean
E e Е е اِ– ە [je]

, [e]

Yes, Egg
Ä ä Ә ә أ [æ, æː] Hat, Had
F f Ф ф ف [ɸ]
G g Г г غ - گ - ق [ɡ~ʁ] Get
H h Х х ح - خ - هـ [h~x] Hat, Loch
I i И и ای [i, iː] Mini
J j Җ җ ج [d͡ʒ] Joke
Ž ž Ж ж ژ [ʒ] Treasure
K k К к ق - ك [k~q] Look
L l Л л ل [l] Lake
M m М м م [m] Mole
N n Н н ن [n] Nest
Ň ň Ң ң نگ [ŋ] Sing
O o О о اوْ [o, oː] Horse
Ö ö Ө ө اؤ [ø, øː] Measure
P p П п پ [p] Loop
R r Р р ر [r] Rim
S s С с ث - س - ص [θ, s] Thick, Sick
Ş ş Ш ш ش [ʃ] Shimmer
T t Т т ت - ط [t] Austin
U u У у اوُ [u, uː] Fluent
Ü ü Ү ү اۆ [y, yː]
W w В в و [β]
Y y Ы ы ای [ɯ, ɯː] Roses
Ý ý Й й ی [j] Yacht
Z z З з ز - ذ - ض - ظ [ð, z] There, Zoo