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This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was first published outside the United States (and not published in the U.S. within 30 days), and it was first published before 1989 without complying with U.S. copyright formalities (renewal and/or copyright notice) and it was in the public domain in its home country on the URAA date (January 1, 1996 for most countries).
This work might not be in the public domain outside the United States in its source country ({{{country}}}) and should not be transferred to a Wikisource language subdomain (or as a file it should not be migrated to the Wikimedia Commons) that excludes works copyrighted at home, because the copyright laws of that country changed after the URAA date and subsequently moved this work back to copyrighted state in that country.
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This template should be used on the pages of works or authors in some special cases when:

  • on the URAA date of the source country the legal system of that country imposed those works to have copyright protection term to have expired on the URAA date,
  • but some later the copyright laws of that country, or any other circumstances, were changed so that those works came back to copyright state in that country.

An example of such case is the legal system of Russia, in which a statement exists that forces, for authors which were put under repressions and unlawfully prosecuted in the USSR and were then rehabilitated posthumously, using the rehabilitation date instead the date of death as the basis for calculation of the copyright protection term. Thus in Russia a case is possible when copyright protection term for some author has expired by URAA date for Russia (1/1/1996), but after that date that author got under rehabilitation and the works of that author became again copyrighted in Russia.

But regarding the URAA restoration in the US, the subsequent to URAA changes in foreign copyright status do not affect the U.S. copyright status. Once the URAA date passes, the US copyright status does not change regardless of what happens to the law in the foreign country — either shortening or lengthening terms will not affect the US terms of the works, restored (or not restored) under URAA definitions. Thus, the works that were in PD in the source country as of laws on that date, stay to be in PD in the US regardless any changes in their state in the source country.


  • country (mandatory) — the name of the source country of the work, or the country of the author's citizenship